What is NRF2?

The NRF2 pathway (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2) is the master regulator of antioxidant, detoxification and cell defense gene expression. It regulates over 600 genes involved in cellular protection and anti-oxidant defenses. It modulates numerous genes responsible for cognitive processes, inflammatory responses, rebuilding tissue, immune system response.

The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant system is essential to protect the lungs from oxidative injury and inflammation. Considering the significant impact of the Nrf2 pathway on the pathophysiology of both host cell and virus, Nrf2 modulators may be able to serve as a promising supplement for viral diseases by therapeutic modulation of virus-induced oxidative stress.

Sulforaphane is a potent activator of the NRF2 pathway and naturally found in broccoli sprouts. ClearSprouts has developed a unique growing, processing, and consumption method that increases the naturally occurring sulforaphane in our sprouts to the highest possible levels – nearly 50x more than home grown sprouts.

Patient coronavirus

Could SFN/NRF2 reduce viral replication?

Slowing the ability of the virus to replicate and spread is perhaps the most obvious and effective ways to prevent complications, shorten the illness durations, and even reduce the ability to for the virus to spread. Simply put, the more time your body has to recognize the intruder and mount a defense, the better chance you have of overcoming the virus and reducing the severity of the illness.

Mask Coronavirus
Coronavirus response

Designing Defenses against Deadly Viruses

“A number of viruses have been shown to augment or dampen gene expression regulated by Nrf2, a master regulator of cellular antioxidant responses.”

Flu influenza

Nrf2 Expression Modifies Influenza A Entry and Replication in Nasal Epithelial Cells

“Our data indicate that there is an inverse relationship between the levels of Nrf2 expression, and viral entry/replication. We also demonstrate that supplementation with Nrf2-activating antioxidants inhibit viral replication in human NEC, which may prove to be an attractive therapeutic intervention”

Viral resistance

Compound in broccoli sprouts cleans out diseased lungs

“Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have developed a non-steroid based strategy for improving the lung’s innate immune defense and decreasing inflammation that can be a problem for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).”

sickness get through the flu

“Our results indicate that Influenza (IAV) induces alveolar epithelial injury and that Nrf2 protects these cells from the cytopathic effects of IAV likely by increasing the expression of antioxidant genes.”

Coronavirus disinfectant

Sulforaphane Suppresses Hepatitis C Virus Replication by Up-Regulating Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression through PI3K/Nrf2 Pathway

“Sulforaphane stimulated the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) leading Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression against Hepatitis virus (HCV) replication. Overall, our results indicated that HO-1 is essential in SFN-mediated anti-HCV activity and provide new insights in the molecular mechanism of SFN in HCV replication.”
Virus

Natural Sulforaphane From Broccoli Seeds Against Influenza A Virus Replication in MDCK Cells

” Natural sulforaphane from broccoli seeds showed potential as an agent against influenza A virus infection, and the CPE after treatment with sulforaphane was concentration dependent; a suitable sulforaphane concentration of 6.25 μM is suggested and was demonstrated as effective, with high antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity.”

coronavirus

Sulforaphane Inhibits HIV Infection of Macrophages through Nrf2

“Sulforaphane treatment blocks infection after entry, but before formation of 2-LTR circles. Interestingly however, neither SAMHD1 nor MX2 were upregulated. This shows for the first time that Nrf2 action can potently block HIV infection and highlights a novel way to trigger this inhibition.”

Lungs Covid-19

“RSV pathogenesis is implicated with oxidative stress, and the Nrf2-directed pathway contributes to host protection against RSV. Suppressed RSV disease phenotypes by an Nrf2 inducer suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for susceptible individuals.”

viral load

Effect of Broccoli Sprouts and Live Attenuated Influenza Virus on Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

“Using inoculation with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) as an infection model, we have recently shown that ingestion of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) reduces markers of viral load in the nose.”
testing virus

“Considering the significant impact of the Nrf2 pathway on the pathophysiology of both host cell and virus, Nrf2 modulators may be able to serve as a promising supplement for viral diseases by therapeutic modulation of virus-induced oxidative stress in the near future.”

SARS COVID

The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant system is essential to protect the lungs from oxidative injury and inflammation.

“Our data indicate that the antioxidant pathway controlled by Nrf2 is pivotal for protection against the development of influenza virus-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury under oxidative conditions.”

Reducing respiratory inflammation damage and boosting recovery through NRF2

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are the clinical manifestations of severe lung damage and respiratory failure. Characterized by severe inflammation and compromised lung function, ALI/ARDS result in very high mortality of affected individuals. By reducing the underlying causes, SFN/NRF2 could provide those in critical condition more time to clear the virus without overwhelming the respiratory system.

Lung tissue

Sulforaphane mitigates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reactions in in silico simulation and in vitro models.

“Sulforaphane, a major ingredient isolated from Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic effects.”

Viral ards

Protective mechanism of sulforaphane in Nrf2 and anti-lung injury in ARDS rabbits

“Sulforaphane significantly inhibits ARDS in rabbits and plays a protective role in ARDS through upregulating Nrf2.”

SARS Coronavirus

Role of Nrf2 and Autophagy in Acute Lung Injury

“Cellular protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotics is mainly conferred by Nrf2, a transcription factor that promotes the expression of genes that regulate oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism and excretion, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and cellular bioenergetics. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of Nrf2 activation in the protection against ALI/ARDS, as pharmacological activation of Nrf2 prevents the occurrence or mitigates the severity of ALI/ARDS.”

Dietary Antioxidants Significantly Attenuate Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Inflammatory Lung Injury by Enhancing Macrophage Function via Reducing the Accumulation of Airway HMGB1

“Our study is the first to report that the dietary antioxidants, ascorbic acid and sulforaphane, ameliorate HALI and attenuate hyperoxia-induced macrophage dysfunction through an HMGB1-mediated pathway. Thus, dietary antioxidants could be used as potential treatments for oxidative-stress-induced acute inflammatory lung injury in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.”

Clearsprout Virus

Role of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases

“Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases including asthma, acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Thus, Nrf2 is considered as a potential therapeutic target in lung diseases owing to its antioxidant effect.”

Coronavirus

Role of Nrf2 and Its Activators in Respiratory Diseases

“To date, researchers have discovered that Nrf2 deletion results in high susceptibility and severity of insults in various models of respiratory diseases, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), respiratory infections, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lung cancer. Conversely, Nrf2 activation confers protective effects on these lung disorders. “

broccoli sprouts

Role of Nrf2 and Autophagy in Acute Lung Injury

“Cellular protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotics is mainly conferred by Nrf2, a transcription factor that promotes the expression of genes that regulate oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism and excretion, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and cellular bioenergetics. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of Nrf2 activation in the protection against ALI/ARDS, as pharmacological activation of Nrf2 prevents the occurrence or mitigates the severity of ALI/ARDS.”

Coronavirus sprouts

Dietary Antioxidants Significantly Attenuate Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Inflammatory Lung Injury by Enhancing Macrophage Function via Reducing the Accumulation of Airway HMGB1

“Our study is the first to report that the dietary antioxidants, ascorbic acid and sulforaphane, ameliorate HALI and attenuate hyperoxia-induced macrophage dysfunction through an HMGB1-mediated pathway. Thus, dietary antioxidants could be used as potential treatments for oxidative-stress-induced acute inflammatory lung injury in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.”

Italy Doctors

Role of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases

“Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases including asthma, acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Thus, Nrf2 is considered as a potential therapeutic target in lung diseases owing to its antioxidant effect.”

Want to explore additional research?

Explore hundreds of studies and decades of research on Sulforaphane, Broccoli Sprouts, and the NRF2 pathway on the Why Broccoli Sprouts page.

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